Verses 551-580


Om May no harm be done Here, May the vessels of the great Seers continue in Salvation, May these movements be in accord with Divine Will, May this desire be motivated by Love, May what is not beneficent wither to obscurity.
I prostrate.

Viveka-Cudamani or CREST-JEWEL OF WISDOM




Translation by

Mohoni M. Chatterji, F.T.S.

second edition 1947 (with updates from later editions added)

(551) Just as a piece of wood is carried along to different places by a torrent, even so the body is led in time by daiva (Karma) into enjoyments.


(552) He who is liberated from the body and is himself perfect, abides in enjoyment like a worldly man full of desires created by past Karma (does). But he lives quietly as a spectator, free from desires and changes, like the centre of a wheel.


(553) He neither applies his senses to objects nor removes them therefrom, but remains a mere spectator. He whose mind is intoxicated with excessive draughts of bliss does not pay even the slightest attention to Karmic effect.


(554) He knows Brahman, renouncing the pursuit of either the visible or the invisible, abides in the atman alone and is evidently himself.


(555) The Knower of Brahman who has attained the end, is ever free, though living (in the world). By the destruction of upadhi, he, being Brahman alone, reaches the non-dual Brahman.


(556) Just as a male being is (always) a male, whether he acts (women’s parts in dramas, etc.) or not, so also he who knows Brahman and is perfect is always Brahman alone and not another.


(557) What is it to an ascetic who has become Brahman, if his body, already burnt up by the fire of wisdom, falls anywhere like the withered leaf of a tree? (He does not care what becomes of his body or where it happens to be placed for the moment.)


(558) The muni who ever abides in the all-pervading atman, who is full of non-dual bliss and is Parabrahman, does not wait for the proper place, time, etc. to throw off this lump of skin, flesh and filth.


(559) Neither the relinquishment of the body, nor of the staff, nor of the water-pot is mokshha (liberation); but mokshha is the happiness (that results from) untying the knot of ignorance in the heart.


(560) What good or evil (effect) is there to a tree if its leaf falls into a canal or a river, in a sacred place, or in a place where four ways meet?


(561) The destruction of body, senses, vitality, is like that of leaf, flower and fruit; but there is no destruction to one’s atman whose essence is truth and who is the embodiment of bliss. This remains (atman) like a tree.


(562) The true characteristic of the atman is that he is full of wisdom. It is repeatedly said that upadhi alone is destroyed.


(563) The sruti thus asserts the indestructibility of the atman when the modifications are destroyed: “Ho! atman is indestructible!”


(564) Just as, when burnt, a stone, a tree, grass, grain, a corpse, a cloth, etc. become earth only, so also the whole of the visible universe such as body, senses, vitality, mind, etc. when burnt up by the fire of wisdom, attain the condition of Paramatman.


(565) Just as darkness, different from (light), becomes merged in the light of the sun, so also the whole visible universe becomes merged in Brahman.


(566) Just as space (limited by form) becomes evident as such on the destruction of form, so also the knower of Brahman becomes Brahman alone on the destruction of the upadhi.


(567) Just as, when mixed, milk becomes one with milk, oil with oil, and water with water, so an ascetic who knows the atman becomes one with him.


(568) Thus the ascetic, renouncing the body, attains mukti (deliverance) which is mere existence, indestructible, the state of which is Brahman and he does not return again.


(569) Where is birth to one who has become Brahman, and whose body, etc. beginning with ignorance, are burnt up by (the fire of) wisdom through union with the atman who is existence?


(570) Bondage and liberation created by maya (illusion) do not exist in reality in the atman; just as (the idea of a) serpent and the opposite do not exist in a rope on knowing it (to be rope and not serpent).


(571) Bondage and liberation are said to be through the existence and non-existence of avriti (encompassing energy). There is no encompassing energy in Brahman. It (Brahman) is not encompassed, because nothing else exists therein. If there exists (something else) then non-duality is destroyed. But the sruti does not allow duality.


(572) Bondage and liberation are indeed false. Just as hiding from sight, caused by the clouds, is predicated of the sun, so also the ignorant impose the attributes of mind on the (one) real substance, whereas this (substance) is indestructible, non-dual, without attachment, and is wisdom.


(573) Belief in the existence of the (one) real substance and non-belief in its existence, are only the attributes of mind and not of the eternal substance.


(574) Hence those two, bondage and liberation, are created by maya (illusion) and they do not exist in the atman. How can (anything) be attributed to supreme truth which, like space, is indivisible, actionless, calm, blameless, stainless and without a second?


(575) There is neither restraint, nor birth, nor bondage, nor an adept (to aid the disciple), nor one desirous of liberation, nor one liberated-this is the highest truth.


(576) The supreme and most mysterious doctrine contained in the Vedas is now revealed to thee. Expound it to one whose mind is free from desire, whose vicious tendencies have vanished, and who aspires after liberation, and cause him to reflect on the same.


(577) Having thus listened to the teachings of the guru, the disciple saluted him respectfully, then, liberated from bondage, with the permission of the guru, he went away.


(578) The guru, whose mind is plunged in the ocean of real bliss, ever roams about purifying the whole world.


(579) Thus, in the form of a dialogue between a guru and a disciple, is revealed the nature of the atman, so that those who aspire after liberation may gain knowledge easily.


(580) May those ascetics who aspire after liberation and delight in the srutis, who have renounced the pleasures of the world, and who have expunged all vices from their hearts, as enjoined, and whose minds are subdued, respect these wholesome teachings!


(581) These words of Shankara, which secure nirvana, excel all others and point out an ocean of nectar close at hand, of non-dual Brahman which gives happiness to those who, suffering from fatigue and thirst caused by the rays of the sun of misery on the road of changing existence, wander in an arid region, desiring water.



by Sri Shankaracarya,

disciple of Sri Govinda Bhagavatpada.

Ohm   peace,   peace,   peace.



Our Advaita Philosophy Ashram


Verses 501-550


Om May no harm be done Here, May the vessels of the great Seers continue in Salvation, May these movements be in accord with Divine Will, May this desire be motivated by Love, May what is not beneficent wither to obscurity.
I prostrate.

Viveka-Cudamani or CREST-JEWEL OF WISDOM




Translation by

Mohoni M. Chatterji, F.T.S.

second edition 1947 (with updates from later editions added)

(501) I have no more connection with the body than the sky with a cloud. Whence, then, can I be subject to states (of the body) such as waking, dreaming and dreamless slumber?


(502) Upadhi (the vehicle) comes and goes; it engenders Karma and enjoys (the effects of Karma). It alone grows old and dies. But I alone remain ever immovable like Kuladri (one of the seven great mountains).


(503) To me who am uniform and without parts, there is neither going forth nor going back. How is it possible for him to perform actions, who is the only self, firm, constant, and, like space, all-pervading?


(504) Where are the merits and demerits of me who have no sense, no mind, no changes, no form, and who enjoy indestructible happiness? Even the sruti asserts that they do not follow (me).


(505) Heat or cold, good or evil touching a shadow, cannot affect the person (whose shadow it is), who is different from it.


(506) Just as household duties do not affect one who, like a burning lamp, is unconcerned and steady, so also the functions of the perceived do not affect the perceiver, who is different from them.


(507) Just as the condition of witnessing actions belongs to the sun, and the property of melting iron belongs to fire, and the idea attributed to “rope” is associated with it, so kutastha (mulaprakriti) is (related) to me who am cidatman (the real self).


(508) I am neither the doer nor the instigator; I am neither the enjoyer nor the promoter of enjoyment, I neither see nor cause others to see; but I am that atman who is self-illumined and unlike (anything else).


(509) When the upadhi is in motion, the ignorant attribute the tremor of the reflections (as in water of the upadhi, such as “I do”, “I enjoy”, “I am killed”, to the real self which is actionless like the sun.


(510) The ignorant move about on land or, in water; but I am not affected by such tendencies, as space is not affected by form.


(511) Action, enjoyment, wickedness, goodness, ignorance, bondage, liberation, etc. are the creations of mind, but in reality they do not exist in Parabrahman which is one and non-dual.


(512) Let there be ten, a hundred, or a thousand modifications of prakriti, then, just as a mass of clouds cannot affect the sky, so these do not affect me whose mind is without attachment.


(513) I am that Brahman which is like space, subtle, non-dual, without beginning and without end, and in which the whole universe, from the unmanifested down to gross matter, is known to be a mere phantom.


(514) I am that non-dual Brahman which supports and illumes all, which is of all forms, all-pervading, empty of all else, eternal, pure, immovable and not subject to change.


(515) I am that non-dual Brahman which is truth, knowledge and bliss, which is uniform and can be attained through knowledge, and in which all phenomenal differences are at an end.


(516) I am actionless, immutable, indivisible, formless; I am subject to no change, eternal; not depending on another and non-dual.


(517) I am all-pervading; I am everything and transcend everything; I am non-dual, indestructible knowledge and eternal bliss.


(518) guru, this supremacy over earth and heaven is attained by me through thy compassion and greatly esteemed favour. To thee, great souled-one (mahatma), I bow down again and again.


(519) guru, having in thy great compassion awakened me from the sound sleep (of ignorance), thou hast saved me, roaming about in the dream-like forest of birth, old age and death, created by maya, daily tormented by manifold afflictions, and terrified by the tiger of egoism.


(520) guru, I bow down before thee who art truth alone, who has the splendour of wisdom and who shinest in the form of the universe.


(521) Observing the disciple, best of his class, who had acquired the truth and attained spiritual happiness in samadhi, the mahatma, lord of gurus, greatly pleased, again spoke these noble words:


(522) The universe is an expansion of its idea in Brahman, hence Brahman alone is real. Perceive Brahman everywhere and in all states through spiritual sight and with quiet mind. What but form can be everywhere perceived by those who have eyes? In like manner what other thing than reality can recreate the mind of one who knows Brahman.


(523) What wise man, renouncing the enjoyment of supreme bliss, will take delight in unreal things? Who will desire to look at the moon in a picture while the delightful moon itself is shining brightly?


(524) By the enjoyment of unreal things there is neither contentment nor destruction of sorrow. Therefore remain contented with the enjoyment of non-dual bliss, and happy in devotion to the atman.


(525) thou high-minded one, pass thy time in the perception of the (real) self everywhere, reflecting on thy non-dual self, and realizing the true self.


(526) To attribute changefulness to the atman who is indestructible wisdom and changeless, is like building a castle in the air. Therefore, always attain the great peace through the atman who is full of non-dual bliss; and keep silence.


(527) The quiet state of the mind, which is the source of modifications and false conceptions, is (called) the great peace. In that state the mahatma who knows Brahman enjoys ever-lastingly non-dual bliss through the atman who is Parabrahman.


(528) To one who knows the nature of the atman and who enjoys self-bliss, there is nothing but silence, void of desire, causing the greatest happiness.


(529) The wise man who delights in the atman and who always remains silent (muni), spends his time either moving, standing still, sitting or lying down or otherwise, at will.


(530) To a mahatma who has fully attained the truth there is neither space, time, sitting in a particular posture, direction, self-control, etc. nor any need of an object to be aimed at, for (causing) the cessation of (mental) activity. When one knows the self, of what use are conditions such as self-restraint?


(531) Does one need self-restraint to know that this is a pot? An object cannot be known without sound proofs.


(532) That this atman is ever perfect becomes clear through proofs., Neither space, nor time, nor purity is needed (for proving it).


(533) To know that I am Devadatta does not need anything else. (One knows his own name without being obliged to wait for proof.) In like manner for one who knows Brahman, nothing else is needed to know that he is Brahman.


(534) How indeed can that which is not atman, unreal and insignificant, illuminate him (atman) by whose radiance, like that of the sun, this whole universe shines?


(535) What indeed can illumine the knower by whom the Vedas, Sastras, Puranas and all beings are rendered significant?


(536) Knowing this atman alone, who is self-refulgence, infinite power, all knowledge and immeasurable, one becomes liberated from the bond (of changing existence). This knower of Brahman excels as the best of the best.


(537) He is neither afflicted by, nor delights in, the objects of sense, nor does he become either attached to them or estranged from them. Being always contented with the enjoyment of bliss, he knows and delights in himself.


(538) Just as a child, ignoring hunger and bodily pain, plays with a toy, so the wise man, renouncing egoism and selfishness, being happy, delights in himself.


(539) The wise are free from anxiety, they eat food obtained by begging but without cringing. They drink water from a stream, they live independent and free. Without fear they sleep either in a cemetery or in a jungle, their clothes are the regions of space which need neither washing nor drying. Their bed is earth, their way lies along the roads of the Vedas and their recreation is in Parabrahman.


(540) The knower of the atman who is not attached to externals and whose characteristics are not perceptible, resting in the body as in a chariot, enjoys, at the desire of others, all surrounding, like a child (does).


(541) He who is clothed with wisdom, whether he wears clothes or is clad with the regions of space, or wears a skin, roams the earth either as an insane person, or as a child, or as a ghost.


(542) The ascetic, free from the idea of desires, always self-satisfied, himself abiding in the all-pervading atman lives and wanders alone.


(543) The wise man behaves sometimes as an ignorant man and at others as a learned one; he is sometimes as dignified as a great king, at others he is like a lunatic; at times he is gentle, and at times his behaviour looks like that of a serpent, Here he is respected, there disrespected, and is not known anywhere, thus he lives happily in supreme, eternal bliss.


(544) Though poor he is always contented; though helpless, he is very powerful; though not eating, he is ever satisfied; though without an equal, he regards all equally.


(545) Though doing, he is not the doer; though enjoying the effects, he is not the enjoyer; though embodied, he is bodiless; though confined (in the body), he is all-pervading.


(546) Likes and dislikes, good and evil, do not in the least affect the knower of Brahman, who is bodiless and always existing.


(547) Happiness and misery, good and evil, belong to him who is attached to gross (objects), and who refers them to himself. Where are good or evil or their effects to the muni (ascetic) who has cast asunder his bonds and has become the real atman?


(548) The sun appears to be swallowed up by darkness (during an eclipse), though this is not so. But the people who, through delusion, do not understand the nature of the thing, say it (the sun) is (swallowed up). So also the ignorant, seeing the phantom-like body of one who knows Brahman and who is freed from the bonds of body, regard him as embodied


(550) Like the slough of a serpent, moving hither and thither at the least breath, the knower of Brahman remains released from the body.

Ohm   peace,   peace,   peace.



Our Advaita Philosophy Ashram

Verses 451-500


Om May no harm be done Here, May the vessels of the great Seers continue in Salvation, May these movements be in accord with Divine Will, May this desire be motivated by Love, May what is not beneficent wither to obscurity.
I prostrate.

Viveka-Cudamani or CREST-JEWEL OF WISDOM




Translation by

Mohoni M. Chatterji, F.T.S.

second edition 1947 (with updates from later editions added)

(451) Just as the space is unaffected by form or odour, , so also the atman remains unaffected by connection with upadhi and its functions.

Literally “the space within the pot or the odour of spirituous liquors”.


(452) The Karma incurred before the attainment of knowledge is not destroyed by knowledge without producing its effect, like a well-aimed arrow discharged at a target.


(453) An arrow discharged at what seems to be a tiger does not stop when it is seen that the object is a cow, but quickly and forcibly pierces the object aimed at.


(454) Prarabdha (Karma already incurred in a previous incarnation) is indeed very powerful. In the wise it is exhausted with cheerful endurance. Samchita (Karma incurred during the present incarnation) and agami (future Karma), are destroyed by the fire of perfect knowledge. Those, who having realized the identity of atman with Brahman always abide in that union, are never (affected) by the three kinds of Karma (prarabdha, samchita and agami), for they become Brahman without attributes.


(455) To the ascetic who is devoid of (the influence of) upadhi and its functions, and who abides in the atman alone, realizing its identity with Brahman, prarabdha does not exist even in name, but is like dream-objects to one awake.


(456) The wise man does not make such distinctions as “I”, “mine”, “this”, with respect to this illusory body and the world to which it belongs, but remains wakeful (conscious as the higher self).


(457) In him there is no desire strengthening illusory objects, nor does he perceive any advantage in this world. If he pursues illusory objects he certainly cannot be regarded as having awakened from the sleep of ignorance.


(458) Similarly he who ever abides in the atman and thus in Parabrahman, sees nothing else. Eating, sleeping, etc, are to a wise man but as the recollection of objects seen in dream.


(459) The body is created by Karma. Regard prarabdha as belonging to it (body). It (prarabdha) cannot be attributed to the atman which is without beginning. The atman is not created by Karma.


(460) The unerring text of the sruti says: (the atman) is not born, is indestructible and eternal”. How can prarabdha exist in one abiding in atman?


(461) So long as the notion continues that body is the self, prarabdha exists. When that notion is not cherished (any longer), prarabdha is abandoned. Even the notion that prarabdha belongs to body is a delusive one.


(462) Whence is the reality of what is supposed and whence is the origin of unreality? Whence is then destruction of what is not born? Whence is there prarabdha of what is unreal?


(463) If the effects of ignorance are completely destroyed by knowledge, how can this body exist? To clear up this doubt of ignorant people, the sruti speaks of prarabdha from an eternal point of view, but not in order to teach the reality of the body to the wise.


(465) Brahman is all-pervading, without beginning and without end, immeasurable, unchangeable, the only one, non-dual, and no differentiation whatever exists therein.


(466) Brahman is absolute existence, absolute consciousness, eternal, absolute bliss, actionless, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein.


(467) Brahman is uniform, unalloyed bliss, all-pervading, endless, boundless, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein.


(468) Brahman can neither be abandoned, taken hold of nor received, and is independent, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein.


(469) Brahman is without attributes, indivisible, subtle, unconditioned, stainless, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein.


(470) Brahman, whose form is indestructible, who is incomprehensible to speech and mind, is the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein.


(471) Brahman is perfect truth, wisdom self-existing, pure, incomparable, the only one, non-dual; and no differentiation whatever exists therein.


(472) The great ascetics, who have abandoned desires and discarded enjoyments, who have subdued their minds and senses, knowing the supreme truth, attain at last paranirvana through union with the atman.


(473) Having investigated this supreme truth and the nature of the atman who is full of bliss, having shaken off the delusion created by your own mind, become wise and free, and thus attain the end.


(474) With a pure, steady mind, know the nature of the atman by clear spiritual perception in samadhi. If the (one real) substance be perceived without error and understood, it will be no more subject to doubt.


(475) On realizing the atman who is truth, wisdom and bliss, through freedom from connection (with upadhi) created by the bond of ignorance, neither sastras, argument, nor the teachings of the guru, but only self-acquired experiences are of any authority.

See Life in Freedom by J. Krishnamurti.


(476) Freedom from bondage, contentment, anxiety, health, hunger, must be experienced by oneself. Knowledge (derived) from others is inferential.


(477) Equal-minded gurus teach, as the Vedas do, that the learned will be saved only by wisdom derived from Isvara (the Logos).


(478) Having known the indestructible atman through one’s own experience, being perfected, one should abide in the atman happily and with steady mind.


(479) The Vedanta doctrine sets forth that the whole universe and (all) jivas (egos) are but Brahman, that mokshha is abiding in the indestructible essence (which is the atman) and the srutis are the authority for the non-duality of Brahman.


(480) Thus comprehending-through the guru’s teaching, through the authority of the srutis, and through his own reasoning-the supreme truth, he (the disciple) with organs of sense controlled, with composed mind and motionless body, remained (for a time) intent on the atman.


(481) Having fixed his mind for a time on Parabrahman, he then got up (from meditation) and said, with much ecstasy, these words:


(482) Through the realization of the atman with Brahman, (my) understanding is utterly lost and mental activity has vanished. I know neither this nor that, nor what this bliss is, its extent, nor its limit.


(483) The greatness of Parabrahman, like an ocean completely filled with the nectar of realised bliss, can neither be described by speech nor conceived by mind, but can be enjoyed. Just as a hailstone falling into the sea becomes dissolved therein, so my mind becomes merged (even) in the least part of this (Parabrahman). Now am I happy with spiritual bliss.


(484) Where is this world gone? By whom was it carried away? When did it disappear? A great wonder! That which was perceived but now exists no longer.


(485) In the great ocean of Brahman, filled with the ambrosia of perfect bliss, what is then to be abandoned or accepted? No other thing exists therein, nor is there any distinguishing quality.


(486) Here (in the state) I neither see, nor hear, nor know anything. I am different from every other thing-the atman who is true bliss.


(487) I bow before thee, O guru, who art good, great, free from attachment, the embodiment of eternal, non-dual bliss, lord of the earth, the boundless reservoir of compassion.


(488) The weariness produced by the burning heat of changing existence being removed by drinking the sweet moonlight of thy glance, I attained, in a moment, the imperishable abode of atman whose glory and bliss are indestructible.


(489) By the grace I am happy and have attained my object, I am freed from the shark of changing existence, and have gained the state of eternal bliss and am perfect.


(490) I am without attachment and without limbs. I am sexless and indestructible. I am calm and endless. I am without stain and ancient.


(491) I am not the doer, nor am I the enjoyer, I am without change and without action. I am pure intelligence, one, and eternal bliss.


(492) I am other than the seer, hearer, speaker, doer and enjoyer, but I am eternal, constant, actionless, without attachment and limitless, all-pervading wisdom.


(493) I am neither this nor that; but I shine forth in both of them and am pure and supreme. I am neither within nor without, but I am all-pervading and non-dual Brahman.


(494) I am the non-dual Brahman which is incomparable, beginningless truth; devoid of such notions as “you”, “I”, “this” and “that”, and eternal bliss and reality.


(495) I am Narayana, I am the destroyer of the giant Naraka, and the slayer of Pura, I am Purusa and Lord, I am indestructible wisdom and the witness of all. I am without Isvara nor am I aham (egoism) and I am free from mama (mine, selfishness).


(496) Being the support within and without, I alone abide in all beings as the wisdom self (jnanatman). Whatever was perceived before (the attainment of knowledge) as different, such as the enjoyer and the thing enjoyed, this am I alone.


(497) In me, the ocean of indestructible bliss, are produced and dissolved, like waves, many worlds through the swirling motion of the gale (called) maya.


(498) Such states as grossness and the like are imagined (to exist) in me and attributed to me by people through error and want of clear comprehension; just as the divisions of time, such as Kalpa, year, half-year, rtu (a period of two months) are made in indivisible and changeless time.

Kalpa-4,320,000,000 years.


(499) That which is attributed (to me by the ignorant, polluted by many sins, can never pollute me, even as the great flood of mirage water cannot wet the barren land.


(500) Like space I go further than thought (am all-pervading). Like the sun I am different from what is made visible (by it). Like a mountain I am eternally immovable. Like the ocean I am boundless.

Ohm   peace,   peace,   peace.



Our Advaita Philosophy Ashram

Verses 401-450


Om May no harm be done Here, May the vessels of the great Seers continue in Salvation, May these movements be in accord with Divine Will, May this desire be motivated by Love, May what is not beneficent wither to obscurity.
I prostrate.

Viveka-Cudamani or CREST-JEWEL OF WISDOM




Translation by

Mohoni M. Chatterji, F.T.S.

second edition 1947 (with updates from later editions added)

(401) In the one substance, devoid of the conditions (of being), such as knower, knowledge and known, and undifferentiable, formless and devoid of visesa, where is the difference?


(402) In the one substance, full as the ocean of kalpa, and undifferentiable, formless and devoid of visesa, where is the difference?

Ocean of Kalpa = the supremely subtle cause into which every thing returns at the universal pralaya.


(403) In the supreme reality, secondless and devoid of visesa, in which ignorance the cause of illusion is destroyed, as darkness is in light, where is the difference?


(404) In the one supreme reality, how can there by any indication of difference? By whom has any difference been perceived in sushhupti, which is merely a state of happiness?


(405) On the realization of the supreme Truth, in none of the three divisions of time is there the universe in sadatman (the eternal self), the consciousness which is Brahman void of vikalpa (distinction or duality). (As on the truth being perceived) there is no snake in the rope nor a drop of water in the mirage.

In which they had been perceived erroneously.


(406) This duality exists only through maya; in absolute reality there is no duality; this the Vedas say clearly and it is perceived in sushhupti.


(407) The identity of that which is attributed to the substance with the substance itself has been perceived by the wise in the case of the rope and the serpent. The distinction is kept alive by error.


(408) This distinction has its root in the thinking principle; without the thinking principle it does not exist. Therefore bring the thinking principle to rest in Paramatman which is the Logos.


(409) The wise man in samadhi perceives in his heart that something which is eternal knowledge, pure bliss, incomparable, eternally free, actionless, as limitless as space, stainless, without distinction of subject and object, and is the all-pervading Brahman (in essence).


(410) The wise man in samadhi perceives in his heart (that something) which is devoid of prakriti and its modifications, whose state or being is beyond (our) conception, and which is uniform, unequalled, beyond the knot of manas, established by the declarations of the Vedas, and known as the eternal Logos, and is the all-pervading Brahman (in essence).


(411) The wise man in samadhi perceives in his heart the undecaying, immortal substance, not indicated by mere negation, without name, in whom the activity of the gunas is at an end, eternal, peaceful and one.


(412) Having brought the antahkarana (mind) to rest, in the true self, you should perceive it, whose glory is indestructible; with assiduous efforts sever the bondage tainted by the smell of conditioned existence, and render fruitful your manhood.


(413) Realize the atman existing in yourself, freed from all upadhis, the non-dual being, consciousness and bliss, and you will no longer be subject to evolution.


(414) The mahatma having (once) abandoned the visible body as if it was a corpse-the body which, through experiencing the effects of Karma, is regarded as a reflected shadow of the man-does not again fix his thoughts upon it.


(415) Having approached the Logos which is eternal, pure knowledge and bliss, abandon this upadhi (the body) which is impure. Then it is not to be thought of again, the recollection of what is vomited is only calculated to disgust.


(416) The great wise man having burnt all this down to the roots in the fire of the eternal self, which is the non-dual Brahman in essence, remains in the Logos, which is eternal, pure knowledge and bliss.


(417) The knower of truth, whose being is (gradually) being absorbed into the Logos which is bliss, and Brahman does not again look at the body, strung on the thread of prarabdha Karma and (unholy) as cow’s blood, whether the body remains or disappears.

Latent possibilities which have become dynamic.


(418) Having perceived the Logos which is indestructible and bliss, as the real self, for what purpose and for whose sake can the knower of truth nourish the body?


(419) The gain of the Yogi who has attained perfection is the enjoyment of perpetual bliss in the atman.


(420) The result of dispassion is right perception; of right perception abstention from the pleasures of sense and ceremonial acts. The peace that comes from the realization of the true is the fruit of abstention from ceremonial acts, from the pleasures of sense.


(421) The absence of what follows (in the order given above) renders fruitless the one that precedes it. Perfect satisfaction proceeding from the unparalleled bliss that comes from self is liberation.


(422) The fruit of wisdom is declared to be freedom from anxiety at the sight of trouble. How can a man of right discrimination do afterwards the blameworthy acts done when deluded?

i.e. when the illusion is extinguished.


(423) It is perceived that the fruit of wisdom is liberation from asat (prakriti), that of ignorance is attachment to it. If this (difference) is not perceived between the ignorant and the wise, as in the mirage, etc. where can we see any gain for the wise?


(424) If the knot of the heart, ignorance, is entirely destroyed, then how can objects by themselves be the cause of attachment in respect of one who is without desires?

Between object and subject there is no relation except through illusion, and hence it is looked upon as a knot tying together the ego and non-ego.


(425) The non-appearance of even conscious inclination towards objects of enjoyment is the extreme limit of dispassion; the non-evolution of egotism is the supreme limit of right discrimination; the non-evolution of self-conscious being by absorption in the Logos is the extreme limit of uparati

Peace, tranquility. See sloka 24.


(426) He on this earth is happy and worthy of honour who, by always resting in peace in the form of Brahman is freed from external consciousness, regarding the objects of enjoyment experienced by others as a sleeping child (would do), looking upon the universe as the world perceived in dream, at times recovers consciousness and enjoys the fruit of an infinity of meritorious deeds.


(427) This ascetic, firm in wisdom, free from changes of condition, actionless, enjoys perpetual bliss, his atman being absorbed in Brahman.


(428) Prajna or wisdom is said to be that state of ideation which recognizes no such distinction as that of ego and non-ego, and which is absorbed in the manifested unity of Brahman and atman.


(429) He who is perfectly at rest (in this wisdom) is said to be firm in wisdom. He who is firm in wisdom, whose bliss is uninterrupted and by whom the objective universe is well nigh forgotten, is regarded as jivanmukta.


(430) He is regarded as jivanmukta who, though having his consciousness absorbed (in the Logos), is awake and yet devoid of all characteristics of waking, whose consciousness is free from even unconscious traces of desire.


(431) He is regarded as jivanmukta in whom all tendency to evolution is at rest, who though possessed of kala (ray of the Logos), is yet devoid of it (from the standpoint of Brahman), whose thinking principle is devoid of thinking.


(432) Though existing in this body which is like a shadow, to be yet devoid of egotism and the consciousness of possession, is the characteristic of a jivanmukta.

Literally my-ness.


(433) Want of inquiry into the past, absence of speculation about the future, and indifference (as to the present), are the characteristics of a jivanmukta.


(434) By nature (from acquired natural disposition) to regard all as equal everywhere in this world of opposites, full as of good and bad qualities, is the characteristic of a jivanmukta.


(435) On meeting with objects, agreeable and disagreeable, to regard them all as equal in (respect to) oneself and to feel no perturbation in either case, is characteristic of a jivanmukta.


(436) The absence of external and internal perception in the ascetic by reason of his consciousness being centred in the enjoyment of Brahmanic bliss, is characteristic of a jivanmukta.


(437) He who is free from egotism and “my-ness” in what is done by body, senses, etc. and who remains indifferent, is possessed of the characteristic of a jivanmukta.


(438) He who has realized the identity of atman with Brahman by the power of Vedic wisdom and is freed from the bondage of conditioned existence, is possessed of the characteristic of a jivanmukta.


(439) He in whom the consciousness of “I” in regard to the body and organs, and of “this” in regard to other subjects, never arises, is considered a jivanmukta.


(440) He who, by reason of wisdom, knows there is no difference between pratyagatman (Logos) and Brahman, as also between Brahman and the universe, is possessed of the characteristic of a jivanmukta.


(441) He who is the same, whether worshipped by the good or harassed by the wicked, is possessed of the characteristic of a jivanmukta.


(442) The ascetic, into whom (into whose consciousness) enter and become merged objects called into existence by para (light of the Logos), as the rivers flow into the ocean, by reason of his being nothing but sat (because Parabrahman), and do not produce any change, is liberated.


(443) For him who has gained the true knowledge of Brahman there is no more evolution as before: if there be these the Brahmanic state is not known (he is out of it).


(444) If it is said ‘he evolves through the force of previous vasana’, it is not so; vasana becomes powerless by the realization of identity with the Reality.

Impressions remaining unconsciously in the mind from past Karma.


(445) As the tendency of the most lustful man ceases before his mother, so (the vasana) of the wise ceases on knowing Brahman the perfect bliss.


(446) Dependence of (external) objects is seen in one engaged in deep meditation on account of the results of Karma already in operation-so say the Vedas.


(447) So long as there is perception of pain and pleasure, so long prarabdha exists; these results are preceded by Karma; for one devoid of Karma they cannot be anywhere,


(448) By the knowledge that I (the Logos) am Brahman, the Karma acquired in a thousand millions of kalpas is extinguished, as is the Karma of dream-life on awaking.


(449) Whatever is done, whether manifestly good or bad in dreams-how is it (efficacious) for the going to heaven or hell of the dreamer awakened?


(450) Having realized his real self as space, without attachment and indifferent (to worldly concerns), he never clings to (becomes united with) anything whatsoever by future Karma.

Ohm   peace,   peace,   peace.



Our Advaita Philosophy Ashram

Verses 351-400


Om May no harm be done Here, May the vessels of the great Seers continue in Salvation, May these movements be in accord with Divine Will, May this desire be motivated by Love, May what is not beneficent wither to obscurity.
I prostrate.




Translation by

Mohoni M. Chatterji, F.T.S.

second edition 1947 (with updates from later editions added)

(351) Therefore all these objects beginning with ahamkara and ending in the body, are the modifications of prakriti. These are unreal, because every moment they appear different, whereas the atman is at no time otherwise.


(352) Paramatman is the eternal, unmixed bliss, the eternal, non-dual, indestructible consciousness, ever the same form, the witness of buddhi and the rest, different from both ego and non-ego; its true significance is indicated by the meaning of the word “I” (aham), the real self.


(353) The wise man, having thus discriminated between ego and non-ego, having ascertained the one reality by innate (spiritual) perception, having realized his own atman as indestructible knowledge, rests in the real self, being free from the two (ego and non-ego).


(354) When by avikalpa samadhi the non-dual atman is realized, then is ignorance-the knot of the heart-completely destroyed. (354)


(355) Paramatman, being non-dual and without difference, such conceptions as “I”, “thou”, and “this”, are produced through the defects of buddhi. But when samadhi is manifest, all differentiation connected with him (the jiva) becomes destroyed through the realization of the (one) real substance.


(356) The ascetic possessed of sama, dama, supreme uparati, and ksanti (endurance), and devoted to samadhi, perceives the state of the Logos and through that (perception) completely burns down all vikalpa (error) produced byavidya and dwells in bliss in Brahman free from vikalpa and action.


(357) Those alone are freed from the bondage of conditioned being who, having transcended all externals, such as hearing, mind, self and egotism in the cidatman (the Logos), are absorbed in it, not those who simply speak about the mystery.


(358) Through the differences of upadhi, the true self seems to be divided, on the removal of upadhi the one true self remains. Therefore let the wise man remain always devoted to samadhi until the final dissolution of upadhi.


(359) The man, devoted to sat (the real), becomes sat through exclusive devotion to that one. As the insect thinking constantly of the humble-bee becomes itself the bee.

It is usually believed in India that a cockroach, shut up with a humble-bee, becomes after a time changed into the latter. A writer in the Theosophist states that he has witnessed such a transformation. (See Theosophist, vol. VI.) The phenomenon in question is unknown to modern entomologists. It seems desirable that very careful and repeated observations should be made to determine the matter. Of course the statement in the text is but an illustration and not an argument; and it is quite independent of the genuineness of the phenomenon.


(360) The insect, abandoning attachment to all other action, meditating on that humble-bee, attains the state of the humble-bee. Similarly, the yogi meditating on the Paramatman (Logos), becomes it through devotion to that one.


(361) The excessively subtile Paramatman (the Logos) cannot be perceived through the gross vision. (It is) to be known by worthy men, with very pure buddhi through the samadhi and supremely subtile (spiritual) faculties.


(362) As gold, properly purified by fire, attains its essential quality, abandoning all dross; so the manas, abandoning the impurities sattva, rajas, and tamas, through meditation attains the Supreme Reality.


(363) When the manas, matured by ceaseless discipline of this kind, becomes merged in Brahman, then samadhi, devoid of all vikalpa (differences such as between subject and object), becomes of itself the producer of the realization of non-dual bliss.


(364) By this samadhi there is destruction of the entire knot of vasana (desire), and (there is) extinction of all karma (action). So there is always, and in every way, within and without, a spontaneous manifestation of Svarupa (Logos).


(365) Know meditation to be a hundred times (superior) to listening, assimilation to be a hundred thousand times (superior) to meditation, and nirvikalpa-samadhi to be infinitely (superior) to assimilation.


(366) Verily by nirvikalpa-samadhi the essential reality called Brahman is clearly realized; not by any other means. (As the non-dual reality) becomes mixed with other conceptions through the inconstancy of the activities of the manas.


(367) Therefore with the organs of sense restrained, and in uninterrupted tranquillity of mind, be engaged in meditation on the Logos; and by perception of the one reality, destroy the darkness caused by beginningless avidya.


(368) The first gate of Yoga is the control of speech, then non-acceptance (of anything and all), absence of expectation, absence of desire and uninterrupted devotion to the one (reality).


(369) Uninterrupted devotion to the one (reality) the cause of the cessation of sense-enjoyment, dama is the cause of tranquillity of the thinking self, and on account of sama egotism is dissolved. Thence proceeds the Yogi’s perpetual enjoyment of the bliss of Brahman, Therefore the cessation of the activity of the thinking self is to be attained with effort by the ascetic.


(370) Control speech by (thy) self, and that by buddhi (intellect); and buddhi by the witness of buddhi (divine light), merge that in nirvikalpa-purnatman (the Logos where no distinction exists between ego and non-ego) and obtain supreme rest.


(371) The Yogi attains the state of those upadhis, namely body, life principle, senses, mind, intellect, etc. with whose functions he is engaged (for the time being).


(372) It is observed that on the cessation of activity (of those functions and upadhis) there comes for the muni that perfect happiness which is caused by abstinence from the pleasures of the senses and the realization of eternal bliss.


(373) Renunciation, external and internal, is fit only for him who is dispassionate. Therefore the dispassionate man on account of the aspiration for liberation forsakes all attachment, whether internal or external.


(374) External attachment is to objects of sense, internal is to egoism and the rest. It is only the dispassionate man, devoted to Brahman, who is able to renounce them.


(375) thou, discriminating man! Know renunciation and spiritual knowledge to be the two wings of the embodied ego. By nothing other than these two can ascent to the top of the creeper of nectar called Liberation be accomplished.


(376) For him who is possessed of excessive dispassion there is samadhi, for him in samadhi there is unwavering spiritual perception. For him who has perceived the essential reality there is liberation, and for the liberated atman there is realization of eternal bliss.


(377) For one whose self is controlled, I see no better generator of happiness than dispassion. If that, again, is accomplished by clear spiritual perception, he becomes the enjoyer of the empire of self-domination; this is the permanent gate of the maiden (named) Liberation. Therefore thou who art different from this, being void of attachment to everything, ever gain knowledge for (thy) self for the sake of liberation.


(378) Cut off desire of objects of sense which are like poison; these are the causes of death. Having forsaken selfish attachment to caste, family and religious order, renounce all acts proceeding from attachment. Abandon the notion of self in regard to unreality-body and the rest-and gain knowledge of self. In reality thou art the seer, stainless, and the supreme non-dual Brahman.


(379) Having firmly applied the manas to the goal, Brahman, having confined the external organs to their own places, with the body motionless, regardless of its state or condition, and having realized the unity of the atman and Brahman by absorption, and abiding in the indestructible, always and abundantly drink in the essence of Brahmanic bliss in thyself. What is the use of all else which is void of happiness?


(380) Abandoning all-thought of non-spirit, which stains the mind and is the cause of suffering, think of atman, which is bliss and which is the cause of liberation.


(381) (This atman) is self illuminating, the witness of all (objects) and is ever manifest in the vijnanamaya-kosa. Making this, which is different from asat (unreal), the aim, realize it as the indestructible self by abiding in it.


(382) Uttering its name, realize it clearly as the essential form of self, the indivisible being, not dependent upon another.


(383) Thoroughly realizing it as the self, and giving up the idea of self as being egotism and the rest, and yet remaining in them, (regard them) as broken earthen-pots through want of interest in them.

Have no more concern than people have about such worthless things as broken pots, which the ordinary house-holder looks upon as inauspicious objects not fit to be kept in any prominent part of the house.


(384) Having applied the purified antahkarana (the mind) to the real self, which is the witness, the absolute knowledge, leading it by slow degrees to steadiness, realize the purnatman.


(385) Regard the indestructible and all-pervading atman freed from all the upadhis-body, senses, vitality, mind, egotism and the rest-produced by ignorance as mahakasa (great space).


(386) As space, freed from a hundred upadhis (such as ) the small and large earthen pots, containing rice and other grains, is one and not many, similarly the pure Supreme, freed from egotism and the rest, is but one.


(387) From Brahma down to the post, all upadhis are merely illusive. Therefore realize the all-pervading atman as one and the same.


(388) Whatever is imagined through error as different (from the real), is not so on right perception, but it is merely that (thing itself). On the cessation of error what was seen before as a snake appears as the rope, similarly the universe is in reality the atman.


(389) The atman is Brahma, the atman is Vishhnu, the atman is Indra, the atman is Siva, the atman is the whole of this universe; besides atman there is nothing.


(390) The atman is within, the atman is without, the atman is before, the atman is behind, the atman is in the south, the atman is in the north, the atman is also above and below.


(391) As wave, foam, whirlpool and bubble-are all essentially but water, so all, beginning with the body and ending with egotism, are but consciousness, which is pure and absolute happiness.


(392) Verily all this universe, known through mind and speech, is the spirit; verily nothing is except the spirit which lies on the other side of prakriti. Are the various kinds of earthen-vessels different from the earth? The embodied ego, deluded by the wine of maya, speaks of “I” and “you”.


(393) By the cessation of action there remains no other than this. The sruti declares the absence of duality, for the purpose of removing the erroneous conception that attributes one thing to another.


(394) The real self is (in essence) the Supreme Brahman, pure as space, void of vikalpa, of boundary, of motion, of modification, of within and without, the secondless, having no other, (so) what else is there to know?


(395) What more is there to say? Jiva (ego), svayam (the real self), from the atom to the universe, all is the non-dual Brahman-in different forms; the sruti says: I (the Logos) am Parabrahman. Those whose minds are thus illuminated, having abandoned all externals, abide in the eternal cidanandatman (the Logos which is consciousness and bliss) and thus reach Brahman. This is quite certain.


(396) Kill out desires raised through egoism in the physical body full of filth, then those raised in the astral body. Know the (real) self, whose glory is celebrated in the Vedas, to be eternal, the very bliss, and remain in Brahman.


(397) So long as a man is attached to the corpse-form, he is impure through enemies, there is suffering associated with birth, death and disease. When he perceives the pure atman which is bliss and is immovable, then only (he) becomes free from these-so the Vedas declare.

i.e. the physical body.
In a levitical sense.
i.e. the six passions: lust, anger, greed, delusion, pride and jealousy.


(398) On the removal of all phenomenal attributes imposed upon the self, the true self is (found to be) the supreme, non-dual, and actionless Brahman.


(399) When the functions of the thinking self are at rest in Paramatman (the Logos), which is (in essence) Parabrahman void of vikalpa, then this vikalpa is perceived no longer and mere wild talk remains.


(400) In the one substance, undifferentiable, formless and devoid of visesa, where is the difference? Hence the distinction that this is the universe, is a false conception.

The distinctness of one object from another.

Ohm   peace,   peace,   peace.



Our Advaita Philosophy Ashram